Most GM food in Australia escapes labelling:
GM oils, sugars and starches
Highly refined food such as oils, sugars and starches derived from GM crops ie canola oil or corn syrup do not need labelling.
This is because it is assumed that GM DNA and proteins are not present in the food.
DNA and proteins are what can cause food allergies.
DNA and proteins are present in oils and our food regulator (FSANZ) knows this.
In the Final Risk Assessment of GM Canola (GT73) total protein found in the refined oil was 0.29 parts per million (p25). This figure is typical of the level of protein in refined oils.
This explains why people allergic to peanuts are often allergic to peanut oil as well.
GM food additives or processing aids
These also do not need to be labelled unless GM DNA or protein is present.
Do not need to be labelled unless they are more than 0.1% of the food
Food contaminated by a GM ingredient or processing aid does not need to be labelled if the contamination is less than 1% of the food.
Food from restaurants etc
Food to be eaten immediately - i.e. sold from restaurants, takeaway outlets, caterers or self-catering institutions does not need to be labelled.
Since most ingredients are considered to be highly refined they escape labelling. Additives and processing aids that contain GM as detailed in the list provided under the heading 'food additives' further down the page, also escape labelling as in general they are present in small amounts.
The exceptions are if for example you buy a packet of soy lecithin, if it is GM it must be labelled. However the same ingredient when in a chocolate bar will not need labelling if it is less than 1% of the ingredients.
Food from animals fed GM feed Milk, meat, eggs, fish and honey from animals fed GM feed does not have to be labelled. Buying organic or grass fed animals is the only way to guarantee non-GM feed.
GM labelling in Europe
Since April 2004 the European Union has required mandatory food labelling where GM has been present anywhere in the production process. It requires labelling irrespective of whether GM material is present in the final food.
The EU regulation on labelling is: Regulation (EC) No. 1830/2003. It provides a framework for the traceability and labelling of products containing, consisting of, or produced from GMOs.
GM labelling in the USA
There is no requirement for any GM food to be labelled in the USA. However there is a massive campaign underway in the US to bring in full process labelling. More details at JustLabelit.org